Today we have hundreds of programming languages for web development, both frontend and backend. Developers choose the programming language based on project requirements, learning curve, reliability, etc. According to the TOIBE 2021 index, Python, C and Java are among the top five programming languages in the world.
This article examines the main programming languages for web development.
Hypertext Preprocessor is a server scripting language that scripts web servers for custom responses to user requests. PHP is easily accessible and allows developers to update their websites frequently. Popular websites using PHP include Etsy, Facebook, Flickr, Wikipedia, Tumblr, Yahoo, and WordPress.
HyperText Markup Language is probably the most famous programming language in the world. It is a declarative markup language that creates a web page by labeling. Unlike a scripting language, HTML is used in structuring and creating page templates. It is impossible to code a functional website without HTML. HTML can also be used with other languages to create more interactive and complex websites.
Python is a general-purpose language that was voted the most popular programming language in 2021. It is also one of the best languages for web development and is usually used in back-end. Python is also beginner-friendly, thanks to its simple and highly readable syntax. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, uses English keywords instead of symbols, and is easy to read and write. It also integrates well with other languages. Popular websites using Python include Spotify, Mozilla, Netflix, Reddit, The Washington Post, and Uber.
C# is a .NET language and is object oriented. It is simple yet powerful in design and supports web development especially on Windows or Microsoft platform applications. Additionally, C# has access to NET’s range of libraries and frameworks, which makes building web applications on Windows servers more efficient. A key advantage of C# is its ability to work well with other languages and is ideal for cross-platform applications. It also supports functional programming and can be easily used in parallel processing.
Ruby is an object-oriented programming language known for its simplicity and ease of use. Developers use Ruby to build architecturally clean, high-quality web applications. The language is also very flexible, allowing developers to categorize code into simple blocks and encapsulate instructions to call easily. It also powers the Ruby on Rails framework for web applications. Built by over six thousand contributors, the Ruby on Rails framework is a server-side web application framework. Popular websites using Ruby include Shopify, GitHub, Urban Dictionary, AirBnB, Hulu, Slideshare, and Goodreads.
Developers commonly use Java to create dynamic web pages with attractive and interactive web interfaces. Java is based on the Write Once, Run Anywhere approach, facilitating cross-platform compatibility. Moreover, Java Virtual Machine allows the programming language to work on various devices and platforms. Popular websites built on Java include eBay, Linkedin, Amazon, Aliexpress, Spotify, Netflix, Uber, Minecraft, and NASA.